Ox gallstones (Niu Huang) in Chinese Medicine

Ox gallstones

Chinese: 牛黃

Pinyin: Niú Huáng

Parts used: Gallstones (hardened deposits of bile that form in the ox's gallbladder)

TCM category: Herbs that cool the Blood

TCM nature: Cold

TCM taste(s): BitterSweet

Organ affinity: Heart Liver

Scientific name: Calculus Bovis

Use of ox gallstones (Niu Huang) in TCM

Please note that you should never self-prescribe TCM ingredients. A TCM ingredient is almost never eaten on its own but as part of a formula containing several ingredients that act together. Please consult a professional TCM practitioner, they will be best able to guide you.

Preparation: Dry the gallstone after removal

Dosage: 0.15 to 0.3 grams

Main actions according to TCM*: Clears Heat and Detoxifies. Calms Liver-Wind. As an aromatic it opens the cavities to expel phlegm.

Primary conditions or symptoms for which ox gallstones may be prescribed by TCM doctors*: Delirium Convulsions Fever Abcesses

Contraindications*: This substance should not be used by pregnant women or those with Spleen and Stomach Coldness and Deficiency.

Common TCM formulas in which ox gallstones (Niu Huang) are used*

Niu Huang Qing Xin Wan

Source date: 1568 AD

Number of ingredients: 6 herbs

Formula key actions: Clears Heat and resolves Toxicity. Calms the Mind. Opens up the Orifices.

Conditions targeted*: Viral encephalitisMeningitis and others

Niu Huang is a king ingredient in Niu Huang Qing Xin Wan. Like the name indicates, it means it has more power than other ingredients in the formula.

In Niu Huang Qing Xin Wan, Niu Huang excels at clearing intense Heat from the Heart and Liver while also removing pathogens from the Pericardium. At the same time, this ingredient is very adapted to dislodge Phlegm, to open the orifices, to extinguish Wind, and to stop tremors.

Read more about Niu Huang Qing Xin Wan

Key TCM concepts behind ox gallstones (Niu Huang)'s properties

In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), ox gallstones are plants that belong to the 'Herbs that cool the Blood' category. Herbs in this category are used to clear inflammatory and infectious conditions, referred to as 'Internal Heat' in TCM. This is why most of the herbs in this category will have both antibacterial and antiviral properties. In TCM one has too much 'Internal Heat' in their body as a result of a deficiency of 'Yin' (which is Cold in nature, see our explanation on Yin and Yang) or, more commonly, an Excess of Yang (Hot in nature). Herbs that cool the Blood treat the latter and as such tend to be Cold or Neutral in nature.

As suggested by its category ox gallstones are plants that are Cold in nature. This means that ox gallstones typically help people who have too much 'Heat' in their body. Balance between Yin and Yang is a key health concept in TCM. Those who have too much Heat in their body are said to either have a Yang Excess (because Yang is Hot in nature) or a Yin deficiency (Yin is Cold in Nature). Depending on your condition ox gallstones can help restore a harmonious balance between Yin and Yang.

Ox gallstones also taste Bitter and Sweet. The so-called 'Five Phases' theory in Chinese Medicine states that the taste of TCM ingredients is a key determinant of their action in the body. Bitter ingredients like ox gallstones tend to have a cleansing action on the body by clearing Heat, drying Dampness and promoting elimination via urination or bowel movements. On the other hand Sweet ingredients tend to slow down acute reactions and detoxify the body. They also have a tonic effect because they replenish Qi and Blood.

The tastes of ingredients in TCM also determine what Organs and Meridians they target. As such ox gallstones are thought to target the Heart and the Liver. In addition to regulating Blood flow, in TCM the Heart is believed to be the store of the 'Mind' which basically refers to someone's vitality. The Liver on the other hand is often referred as the body's "general" because it is in charge of regulating the movements of Qi and the Body Fluids. It also takes a leading role in balancing our emotions.