Melon stalks (Gua Di ) Adzuki beans (Chi Xiao Dou) Fermented soybeans (Dan Dou Chi)

Chinese: 瓜蒂散

Pinyin: Guā Dì Sǎn

Other names: Melon Stalk Powder

Number of ingredients: 3 herbs

Formula category: Formulas that induce vomiting

Conditions for which it may be prescribed: NeurosesAcute gastritisOral ingestion of poisons

Main actions: Discharges Phlegm or food stagnation through vomiting

Contraindications: Because Melon stalk is a cold, bitter, and toxic herb that can injure the... Because Melon stalk is a cold, bitter, and toxic herb that can injure the Stomach Qi and normal Qi, this formula should be used with caution in weak patients. It is contraindicated when the Phlegm is not in the chest or when stagnant food has already passed into the intestines. If the formula causes unremitting vomiting, take 0.3-0.6g of Cloves, or one-tenth that amount of Musk. see more

Source date: 220 AD

Source book: Discussion of Cold Damage

Gua Di San is a 3-ingredient Chinese Medicine formula with Melon Stalks (Gua Di ) as a principal ingredient.

Invented in 220 AD, it belongs to the category of formulas that induce vomiting. Its main action is that it discharges Phlegm or food stagnation through vomiting .

In Chinese Medicine health conditions are thought to arise due to "disharmonies" in the body as a system. These disharmonies are called "patterns" and the very purpose of herbal formulas is to fight them in order to restore the body's harmony.

In this case Gua Di San is used by TCM practitioners to fight patterns like Food Stagnation in the Stomach. From a Western Medicine standpoint, such patterns can give rise to a range of conditions such as oral ingestion of poisons, acute gastritis or neuroses for instance.

On this page, after a detailed description of each of the three ingredients in Gua Di San, we review the patterns and conditions that Gua Di San helps treat.

The three ingredients in Gua Di San

Gua Di is a king ingredient in Gua Di San. Like the name indicates, it means it has more power than other ingredients in the formula.

1. Melon Stalks (Gua Di )

Part used: The pedicle

Nature: Cold

Taste(s): Bitter

Meridian affinity: Stomach

Category: Warm herbs that transform Phlegm and stop Cough

In general Gua Di 's main actions are as follows: "Inducing vomiting to expel Phlegm Heat or stagnant food. Dispels Damp-Heat and relieves jaundice. "

In the context of Gua Di San, it is used because it is bitter and effectively induces vomiting to eliminate the Phlegm or stagnant food.

Learn more about Melon Stalks (Gua Di )

Chi Xiao Dou is a deputy ingredient in Gua Di San. This means it helps the king ingredient(s) treat the main pattern or it serves to treat a coexisting pattern.

2. Adzuki Beans (Chi Xiao Dou)

Part used: Dried ripe fruits

Nature: Neutral

Taste(s): SourSweet

Meridian affinity: HeartSmall intestine

Category: Herbs that drain Dampness

In general Chi Xiao Dou's main actions are as follows: "Expels dampness by facilitating urination. Activates Blood circulation and detoxifies. Reduces swelling and expels pus."

In the context of Gua Di San, it is used because it expels Dampness and eliminates the irritability and fullness.

Learn more about Adzuki Beans (Chi Xiao Dou)

Dan Dou Chi is an assistant ingredient in Gua Di San. This means that it either serves to reinforces the effect of other ingredients or it moderates their toxicity.

3. Fermented Soybeans (Dan Dou Chi)

Part used: Fermented preparation obtain from the ripe bean

Nature: Cool

Taste(s): BitterPungent

Meridian affinity: LungStomach

Category: Cool/Acrid herbs that release the Exterior

Dan Dou Chi has a light and clear nature that unbinds the Stagnation in the chest and helps resolve problems in that area. Together with Adzuki beans, it harmonizes the Stomach Qi and helps improve the injury to the normal Qi caused by vomiting.

Learn more about Fermented Soybeans (Dan Dou Chi)

Gua Di San is used to treat Food Stagnation in the Stomach

It's important to remember that herbal formulas are meant to treat patterns, not "diseases" as understood in Western Medicine. According to Chinese Medicine patterns, which are disruptions to the body as a system, are the underlying root cause for diseases and conditions.

As such Gua Di San is mostly used to treat the pattern "Food Stagnation in the Stomach" which we describe below.

But before we delve into Food Stagnation in the Stomach here is an overview of the Western conditions it is commonly associated with:

Oral ingestion of poisons Acute gastritis Neuroses

Again it wouldn't be correct to say "Gua Di San treats oral ingestion of poisons" for instance. Rather, Gua Di San is used to treat Food Stagnation in the Stomach, which is sometimes the root cause behind oral ingestion of poisons.

Now let's look at Food Stagnation in the Stomach, a pattern that TCM practitioners commonly treat with Gua Di San.

The Stomach is a so-called "Fu" Organ. Learn more about the Stomach in Chinese Medicine

Food Stagnation in the Stomach

Gua Di San is sometimes prescribed by TCM practitioners to treat Food Stagnation in the Stomach. This pattern leads to symptoms such as fullness and pain of the epigastrium which are relieved by vomiting, nausea, vomiting of sour fluids and foul breath. Patients with Food Stagnation in the Stomach typically exhibit slippery (Hua) or full (Shi) pulses.

This pattern tends to mostly occur in children or babies whose Stomach and Spleen are weak and food therefore tends to accumulate.

Adults can be affected too: most people can probably remember overeating a holiday meal with the accompanying bloating, belching, pain and poor sleep that resulted.

The... read more about Food Stagnation in the Stomach

Formulas similar to Gua Di San

Cong Chi Tang is 33% similar to Gua Di San

Zhi Zi Chi Tang is 33% similar to Gua Di San

Huo Ren Cong Shi Tang is 25% similar to Gua Di San

Cong Bai Qi Wei Yin is 17% similar to Gua Di San

Lian Po Yin is 14% similar to Gua Di San

Sang Xing Tang is 14% similar to Gua Di San